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unzip a file called
[ unzip ]

( The file name can be most anything, foo is just an example for illustration. )
UNZIP(1L)                                                            UNZIP(1L)

       unzip - list, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive

       unzip   [-Z]   [-cflptuvz[abjnoqsCLMVX$/:]]   file[.zip]  [file(s) ...]
       [-x xfile(s) ...] [-d exdir]

       unzip will list, test, or extract files from a  ZIP  archive,  commonly
       found  on MS-DOS systems.  The default behavior (with no options) is to
       extract into the current directory (and subdirectories  below  it)  all
       files  from  the  specified ZIP archive.  A companion program, zip(1L),
       creates ZIP archives; both programs are compatible with  archives  cre-
       ated  by  PKWARE`s  PKZIP and PKUNZIP for MS-DOS, but in many cases the
       program options or default behaviors differ.

              Path of the ZIP archive(s).  If  the  file  specification  is  a
              wildcard, each matching file is processed in an order determined
              by the operating system (or file system).  Only the filename can
              be a wildcard; the path itself cannot.  Wildcard expressions are
              similar to those supported in commonly  used  Unix  shells  (sh,
              ksh, csh) and may contain:

              *      matches a sequence of 0 or more characters

              ?      matches exactly 1 character

              [...]  matches  any  single character found inside the brackets;
                     ranges are specified by a beginning character, a  hyphen,
                     and  an  ending  character.  If an exclamation point or a
                     caret (`!` or `^`) follows the  left  bracket,  then  the
                     range  of  characters within the brackets is complemented
                     (that is,  anything  except  the  characters  inside  the
                     brackets is considered a match).

              (Be  sure  to quote any character that might otherwise be inter-
              preted or modified by the operating system,  particularly  under
              Unix  and  VMS.)   If no matches are found, the specification is
              assumed to be a literal filename; and if that  also  fails,  the
              suffix  .zip  is  appended.  Note that self-extracting ZIP files
              are supported, as with any other ZIP archive; just  specify  the
              .exe suffix (if any) explicitly.

              An  optional  list of archive members to be processed, separated
              by spaces.  (VMS versions  compiled  with  VMSCLI  defined  must
              delimit  files  with  commas instead.  See -v in OPTIONS below.)
              Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used  to  match  multiple
              members;  see  above.   Again, be sure to quote expressions that
              would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system.

       [-x xfile(s)]
              An optional list of archive members to be excluded from process-
              ing.   Since  wildcard  characters  match  directory  separators
              (`/`),  this option may be used to exclude any files that are in
              subdirectories.  For example, ``unzip foo *.[ch] -x */*``  would
              extract  all  C  source files in the main directory, but none in
              any subdirectories.  Without the -x option, all C  source  files
              in all directories within the zipfile would be extracted.

       [-d exdir]
              An  optional  directory  to which to extract files.  By default,
              all files and subdirectories are recreated in the current direc-
              tory;  the -d option allows extraction in an arbitrary directory
              (always assuming one has permission to write to the  directory).
              This  option  need not appear at the end of the command line; it
              is also accepted before the zipfile specification (with the nor-
              mal  options),  immediately  after the zipfile specification, or
              between the file(s) and the -x option.  The option and directory
              may  be  concatenated  without any white space between them, but
              note that this may cause normal shell behavior to be suppressed.
              In  particular,  ``-d ~``  (tilde)  is expanded by Unix C shells
              into the name of the  user`s  home  directory,  but  ``-d~``  is
              treated  as  a  literal subdirectory ``~`` of the current direc-

       Note that, in order to  support  obsolescent  hardware,  unzip`s        usage
       screen  is limited to 22 or 23 lines and should therefore be considered
       only a reminder of the basic unzip syntax  rather  than  an  exhaustive
       list of all possible flags.  The exhaustive list follows:

       -Z     zipinfo(1L)  mode.   If  the first option on the command line is
              -Z, the remaining options are taken to be  zipinfo(1L)  options.
              See  the  appropriate  manual  page  for  a description of these

       -A     [OS/2, Unix DLL] print extended help for the  DLL`s  programming
              interface (API).

       -c     extract  files to stdout/screen (``CRT``).  This option is simi-
              lar to the -p option except  that  the  name  of  each  file  is
              printed as it is extracted, the -a option is allowed, and ASCII-
              EBCDIC conversion is  automatically  performed  if  appropriate.
              This option is not listed in the unzip usage screen.

       -f     freshen  existing  files,  i.e.,  extract  only those files that
              already exist on disk and that are newer than the  disk  copies.
              By  default  unzip queries before overwriting, but the -o option
              may be used to suppress the queries.  Note that under many oper-
              ating  systems,  the  TZ (timezone) environment variable must be
              set correctly in order for -f and -u  to  work  properly  (under
              Unix  the  variable  is usually set automatically).  The reasons
              for this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences
              between  DOS-format file times (always local time) and Unix-for-
              mat times (always in GMT/UTC) and the necessity to  compare  the
              two.   A  typical  TZ value is ``PST8PDT`` (US Pacific time with
              automatic adjustment  for  Daylight  Savings  Time  or  ``summer

       -l     list archive files (short format).  The names, uncompressed file
              sizes and modification dates and times of  the  specified  files
              are  printed,  along  with  totals  for all files specified.  If
              UnZip was compiled with OS2_EAS  defined,  the  -l  option  also
              lists  columns  for the sizes of stored OS/2 extended attributes
              (EAs) and OS/2 access control lists (ACLs).   In  addition,  the
              zipfile  comment  and individual file comments (if any) are dis-
              played.  If a file was archived from a single-case  file  system
              (for  example, the old MS-DOS FAT file system) and the -L option
              was given, the filename is converted to lowercase  and  is  pre-
              fixed with a caret (^).

       -p     extract  files  to  pipe (stdout).  Nothing but the file data is
              sent to stdout, and the files are  always  extracted  in  binary
              format, just as they are stored (no conversions).

       -t     test archive files.  This option extracts each specified file in
              memory  and  compares  the  CRC  (cyclic  redundancy  check,  an
              enhanced checksum) of the expanded file with the original file`s
              stored CRC value.

       -T     [most OSes] set the timestamp on the archive(s) to that  of  the
              newest  file  in each one.  This corresponds to zip`s -go option
              except that it can be used on wildcard zipfiles  (e.g.,  ``unzip
              -T \*.zip``) and is much faster.

       -u     update  existing  files  and  create  new  ones if needed.  This
              option performs the same function as the -f  option,  extracting
              (with  query) files that are newer than those with the same name
              on disk, and in addition it extracts those  files  that  do  not
              already  exist on disk.  See -f above for information on setting
              the timezone properly.

       -v     be verbose or print diagnostic version info.   This  option  has
              evolved and now behaves as both an option and a modifier.  As an
              option it has two purposes:  when a zipfile is specified with no
              other  options,  -v lists archive files verbosely, adding to the
              basic -l info the compression method, compressed size,  compres-
              sion  ratio  and 32-bit CRC.  When no zipfile is specified (that
              is, the complete command is simply ``unzip -v``),  a  diagnostic
              screen  is  printed.   In  addition  to  the  normal header with
              release date and version, unzip lists the home Info-ZIP ftp site
              and  where  to  find  a list of other ftp and non-ftp sites; the
              target operating system for which it was compiled,  as  well  as
              (possibly)  the  hardware on which it was compiled, the compiler
              and version used, and the compilation date; any special compila-
              tion options that might affect the program`s operation (see also
              DECRYPTION below); and any options stored in  environment  vari-
              ables  that  might  do the same (see ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS below).
              As a modifier it works in conjunction with other options  (e.g.,
              -t) to produce more verbose or debugging output; this is not yet
              fully implemented but will be in future releases.

       -z     display only the archive comment.

       -a     convert text files.  Ordinarily all files are extracted  exactly
              as  they are stored (as ``binary`` files).  The -a option causes
              files identified by zip as text files (those with the `t`      label
              in  zipinfo  listings,  rather  than  `b`)  to  be automatically
              extracted as such, converting line endings, end-of-file  charac-
              ters  and  the character set itself as necessary.  (For example,
              Unix files use line feeds (LFs) for end-of-line (EOL)  and  have
              no  end-of-file  (EOF)  marker; Macintoshes use carriage returns
              (CRs) for EOLs; and most PC operating systems use CR+LF for EOLs
              and  control-Z  for  EOF.   In  addition, IBM mainframes and the
              Michigan Terminal System use EBCDIC rather than the more  common
              ASCII  character set, and NT supports Unicode.)  Note that zip`s
              identification of text  files  is  by  no  means  perfect;  some
              ``text``  files  may  actually  be binary and vice versa.  unzip
              therefore prints ``[text]`` or ``[binary]`` as  a  visual  check
              for  each  file  it  extracts when using the -a option.  The -aa
              option forces all files to be extracted as text,  regardless  of
              the supposed file type.

       -b     [general] treat all files as binary (no text conversions).  This
              is a shortcut for ---a.

       -b     [Tandem] force the creation files with filecode type  180  (`C`)
              when  extracting Zip entries marked as "text". (On Tandem, -a is
              enabled by default, see above).

       -b     [VMS] auto-convert binary files (see -a above) to  fixed-length,
              512-byte  record  format.   Doubling the option (-bb) forces all
              files to be extracted in this format. When extracting  to  stan-
              dard  output (-c or -p option in effect), the default conversion
              of text record delimiters is disabled for binary (-b) resp.  all
              (-bb) files.

       -B     [Unix only, and only if compiled with UNIXBACKUP defined] save a
              backup copy of each  overwritten  file  with  a  tilde  appended
              (e.g., the old copy of ``foo`` is renamed to ``foo~``).  This is
              similar to the default behavior of emacs(1) in many locations.

       -C     match filenames case-insensitively.  unzip`s philosophy is ``you
              get  what  you ask for`` (this is also responsible for the -L/-U
              change; see the relevant options below).  Because some file sys-
              tems  are  fully  case-sensitive  (notably  those under the Unix
              operating system) and because both ZIP archives and unzip itself
              are  portable  across  platforms, unzip`s default behavior is to
              match both  wildcard  and  literal  filenames  case-sensitively.
              That  is,  specifying ``makefile`` on the command line will only
              match ``makefile`` in the archive, not ``Makefile``  or  ``MAKE-
              FILE``  (and similarly for wildcard specifications).  Since this
              does not correspond to the behavior of many other operating/file
              systems  (for example, OS/2 HPFS, which preserves mixed case but
              is not sensitive to it), the -C option may be used to force  all
              filename  matches to be case-insensitive.  In the example above,
              all three files would then match ``makefile`` (or ``make*``,  or
              similar).   The  -C option affects files in both the normal file
              list and the excluded-file list (xlist).

       -E     [MacOS only]  display  contents  of  MacOS  extra  field  during
              restore operation.

       -F     [Acorn  only]  suppress  removal  of NFS filetype extension from
              stored filenames.

       -F     [non-Acorn systems supporting long filenames with embedded  com-
              mas,  and  only if compiled with ACORN_FTYPE_NFS defined] trans-
              late filetype information from ACORN RISC OS extra field  blocks
              into  a NFS filetype extension and append it to the names of the
              extracted files.  (When the stored filename appears  to  already
              have  an  appended NFS filetype extension, it is replaced by the
              info from the extra field.)

       -i     [MacOS only] ignore filenames  stored  in  MacOS  extra  fields.
              Instead, the most compatible filename stored in the generic part
              of the entry`s header is used.

       -j     junk paths.  The archive`s directory structure is not recreated;
              all files are deposited in the extraction directory (by default,
              the current one).

       -J     [BeOS  only]  junk  file  attributes.   The  file`s  BeOS         file
              attributes are not restored, just the file`s data.

       -J     [MacOS  only] ignore MacOS extra fields.  All Macintosh specific
              info is skipped. Data-fork and  resource-fork  are  restored  as
              separate files.

       -L     convert  to  lowercase any filename originating on an uppercase-
              only operating system or file system.  (This was unzip`s default
              behavior  in releases prior to 5.11; the new default behavior is
              identical to the old behavior with the -U option, which  is  now
              obsolete and will be removed in a future release.)  Depending on
              the archiver, files  archived  under  single-case  file  systems
              (VMS,  old  MS-DOS  FAT,  etc.)  may  be stored as all-uppercase
              names; this can be ugly or inconvenient  when  extracting  to  a
              case-preserving  file  system such as OS/2 HPFS or a case-sensi-
              tive one such  as  under  Unix.   By  default  unzip  lists  and
              extracts  such  filenames  exactly  as they`re stored (excepting
              truncation, conversion of unsupported  characters,  etc.);  this
              option  causes the names of all files from certain systems to be
              converted to lowercase.  The -LL  option  forces  conversion  of
              every  filename to lowercase, regardless of the originating file

       -M     pipe all output through an internal pager similar  to  the  Unix
              more(1)  command.   At  the  end of a screenful of output, unzip
              pauses with a ``--More--`` prompt; the  next  screenful  may  be
              viewed  by  pressing  the  Enter  (Return) key or the space bar.
              unzip can be terminated by pressing the ``q`` key and,  on  some
              systems, the Enter/Return key.  Unlike Unix more(1), there is no
              forward-searching or editing capability.   Also,  unzip  doesn`t
              notice if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen, effectively
              resulting in the printing of two or more lines and  the  likeli-
              hood that some text will scroll off the top of the screen before
              being viewed.  On some systems the number of available lines  on
              the  screen  is  not  detected,  in which case unzip assumes the
              height is 24 lines.

       -n     never overwrite existing files.  If a file already exists,  skip
              the extraction of that file without prompting.  By default unzip
              queries before extracting any file that already exists; the user
              may  choose  to  overwrite  only the current file, overwrite all
              files, skip extraction of the current file, skip  extraction  of
              all existing files, or rename the current file.

       -N     [Amiga] extract file comments as Amiga filenotes.  File comments
              are created with the -c option of zip(1L), or with the -N option
              of  the  Amiga  port  of zip(1L), which stores filenotes as com-

       -o     overwrite existing files without prompting.  This is a dangerous
              option,  so  use  it with care.  (It is often used with -f, how-
              ever, and is the only  way  to  overwrite  directory  EAs  under

       -P password
              use  password  to  decrypt  encrypted  zipfile entries (if any).
              THIS IS INSECURE!  Many  multi-user  operating  systems  provide
              ways  for  any user to see the current command line of any other
              user; even on stand-alone systems there is always the threat  of
              over-the-shoulder  peeking.   Storing  the plaintext password as
              part of a command line in an automated  script  is  even  worse.
              Whenever  possible,  use  the non-echoing, interactive prompt to
              enter passwords.  (And where security is  truly  important,  use
              strong  encryption  such  as  Pretty Good Privacy instead of the
              relatively weak encryption provided by standard  zipfile  utili-

       -q     perform  operations  quietly  (-qq  = even quieter).  Ordinarily
              unzip prints the names of the files it`s extracting or  testing,
              the extraction methods, any file or zipfile comments that may be
              stored in the archive, and possibly a summary when finished with
              each  archive.   The -q[q] options suppress the printing of some
              or all of these messages.

       -s     [OS/2, NT, MS-DOS] convert spaces in filenames  to  underscores.
              Since  all PC operating systems allow spaces in filenames, unzip
              by  default  extracts  filenames  with  spaces   intact   (e.g.,
              ``EA DATA. SF``).  This can be awkward, however, since MS-DOS in
              particular does not  gracefully  support  spaces  in  filenames.
              Conversion  of  spaces to underscores can eliminate the awkward-
              ness in some cases.

       -U     (obsolete; to be removed in a future  release)  leave  filenames
              uppercase if created under MS-DOS, VMS, etc.  See -L above.

       -V     retain (VMS) file version numbers.  VMS files can be stored with
              a version number, in the format  file.ext;##.   By  default  the
              ``;##``  version  numbers  are  stripped, but this option allows
              them to be retained.  (On file systems that limit  filenames  to
              particularly short lengths, the version numbers may be truncated
              or stripped regardless of this option.)

       -X     [VMS, Unix, OS/2, NT] restore owner/protection info (UICs) under
              VMS, or user and group info (UID/GID) under Unix, or access con-
              trol lists (ACLs) under certain network-enabled versions of OS/2
              (Warp Server with IBM LAN Server/Requester 3.0 to 5.0; Warp Con-
              nect with IBM Peer 1.0), or security ACLs under Windows NT.   In
              most cases this will require special system privileges, and dou-
              bling the option (-XX) under NT instructs unzip  to  use  privi-
              leges  for  extraction;  but under Unix, for example, a user who
              belongs to several groups can restore  files  owned  by  any  of
              those  groups,  as  long  as  the user IDs match his or her own.
              Note that ordinary file  attributes  are  always  restored--this
              option  applies only to optional, extra ownership info available
              on some operating systems.  [NT`s access control        lists  do  not
              appear to be especially compatible with OS/2`s, so no attempt is
              made at cross-platform portability of access privileges.  It  is
              not  clear  under what conditions this would ever be useful any-

       -$     [MS-DOS, OS/2, NT] restore the volume label  if  the  extraction
              medium  is  removable  (e.g.,  a diskette).  Doubling the option
              (-$$) allows fixed media (hard disks) to be  labelled  as  well.
              By default, volume labels are ignored.

       -/ extensions
              [Acorn  only] overrides the extension list supplied by Unzip$Ext
              environment variable.  During  extraction,  filename  extensions
              that  match  one of the items in this extension list are swapped
              in front of the base name of the extracted file.

       -:     [all but Acorn, VM/CMS, MVS, Tandem] allows to  extract  archive
              members into locations outside of the current `` extraction root
              folder``. For security reasons, unzip normally removes  ``parent
              dir``  path  components  (``../``)  from      the names of extracted
              file.  This safety feature (new for version 5.50) prevents unzip
              from  accidentally  writing files to ``sensitive`` areas outside
              the active extraction folder tree  head.   The  -:  option  lets
              unzip  switch  back  to its previous, more liberal behaviour, to
              allow exact extraction of (older)  archives  that  used  ``../``
              components  to  create  multiple directory trees at the level of
              the current extraction folder.   This  option  does  not  enable
              writing  explicitly  to  the root directory (``/``).  To achieve
              this, it is necessary to set the  extraction  target  folder  to
              root (e.g. -d / ).  However, when the -: option is specified, it
              is still possible to implicitly write to the root  directory  by
              specifiying  enough ``../`` path components within the zip file.
              Use this option with extreme caution.

       unzip`s default behavior may be modified via options placed in an envi-
       ronment variable.  This can be done with any option, but it is probably
       most useful with the -a, -L, -C, -q, -o, or -n modifiers:   make  unzip
       auto-convert  text  files  by  default,  make it convert filenames from
       uppercase systems to lowercase, make it match names case-insensitively,
       make  it  quieter, or make it always overwrite or never overwrite files
       as it extracts them.  For example, to make unzip act as quietly as pos-
       sible,  only  reporting errors, one would use one of the following com-

         Unix Bourne shell:
              UNZIP=-qq; export UNZIP

         Unix C shell:
              setenv UNZIP -qq

         OS/2 or MS-DOS:
              set UNZIP=-qq

         VMS (quotes for lowercase):
              define UNZIP_OPTS ""-qq""

       Environment options are, in effect, considered  to  be  just  like  any
       other  command-line options, except that they are effectively the first
       options on the command line.  To override an  environment  option,  one
       may use the ``minus operator`` to remove it.  For instance, to override
       one of the quiet-flags in the example above, use the command

           unzip --q[other options] zipfile

       The first hyphen is the normal switch character, and the  second  is  a
       minus  sign, acting on the q option.  Thus the effect here is to cancel
       one quantum of quietness.  To cancel both quiet flags,  two  (or  more)
       minuses may be used:

           unzip -t--q zipfile
           unzip ---qt zipfile

       (the  two  are equivalent).  This may seem awkward or confusing, but it
       is reasonably intuitive:  just ignore the  first  hyphen  and  go  from
       there.  It is also consistent with the behavior of Unix nice(1).

       As  suggested  by  the  examples  above, the default variable names are
       UNZIP_OPTS for VMS (where the symbol used to install unzip as a foreign
       command would otherwise be confused with the environment variable), and
       UNZIP for all other operating systems.  For compatibility with zip(1L),
       UNZIPOPT  is also accepted (don`t ask).        If both UNZIP and UNZIPOPT are
       defined, however, UNZIP takes precedence.   unzip`s  diagnostic        option
       (-v  with  no zipfile name) can be used to check the values of all four
       possible unzip and zipinfo environment variables.

       The timezone variable (TZ) should be set according to the  local  time-
       zone in order for the -f and -u to operate correctly.  See the descrip-
       tion of -f above for details.  This variable may also be  necessary  in
       order  for  timestamps  on  extracted files to be set correctly.  Under
       Windows 95/NT unzip should know the correct  timezone  even  if  TZ  is
       unset, assuming the timezone is correctly set in the Control Panel.

       Encrypted archives are fully supported by Info-ZIP software, but due to
       United States export restrictions, de-/encryption support might be dis-
       abled  in  your compiled binary.  However, since spring 2000, US export
       restrictions have been  liberated,  and  our  source  archives  do  now
       include  full  crypt  code.  In case you need binary distributions with
       crypt support enabled, see the file ``WHERE`` in any Info-ZIP source or
       binary distribution for locations both inside and outside the US.

       Some compiled versions of unzip may not support decryption.  To check a
       version for crypt  support,  either  attempt  to  test  or  extract  an
       encrypted  archive, or else check unzip`s diagnostic screen (see the -v
       option above) for ``[decryption]`` as one of  the  special  compilation

       As  noted  above, the -P option may be used to supply a password on the
       command line, but at a cost  in  security.   The  preferred  decryption
       method is simply to extract normally; if a zipfile member is encrypted,
       unzip will prompt for the  password  without  echoing  what  is  typed.
       unzip  continues  to  use the same password as long as it appears to be
       valid, by testing a 12-byte header on each file.  The correct  password
       will  always  check  out  against  the  header, but there is a 1-in-256
       chance that an incorrect password will as well.  (This  is  a  security
       feature  of  the  PKWARE  zipfile  format; it helps prevent brute-force
       attacks that might otherwise gain a large speed  advantage  by  testing
       only  the header.)  In the case that an incorrect password is given but
       it passes the header test anyway, either an incorrect CRC will be  gen-
       erated  for  the  extracted  data  or  else  unzip will fail during the
       extraction because the ``decrypted`` bytes do not  constitute  a  valid
       compressed data stream.

       If  the  first password fails the header check on some file, unzip will
       prompt for another password, and so on until all files  are  extracted.
       If  a  password is not known, entering a null password (that is, just a
       carriage return or ``Enter``) is taken as a signal to skip all  further
       prompting.  Only unencrypted files in the archive(s) will thereafter be
       extracted.  (In fact, that`s not quite true; older versions of  zip(1L)
       and zipcloak(1L) allowed null passwords, so unzip checks each encrypted
       file to see if the null password works.  This  may  result  in  ``false
       positives`` and extraction errors, as noted above.)

       Archives  encrypted  with  8-bit passwords (for example, passwords with
       accented European characters) may not be portable across systems and/or
       other  archivers.  This problem stems from the use of multiple encoding
       methods for such characters, including Latin-1  (ISO  8859-1)  and  OEM
       code  page  850.  DOS PKZIP 2.04g uses the OEM code page; Windows PKZIP
       2.50 uses Latin-1 (and is therefore incompatible with DOS PKZIP); Info-
       ZIP  uses  the  OEM code page on DOS, OS/2 and Win3.x ports but Latin-1
       everywhere else; and Nico Mak`s WinZip 6.x does not allow  8-bit        pass-
       words at all.  UnZip 5.3 (or newer) attempts to use the default charac-
       ter set first (e.g., Latin-1), followed by the alternate one (e.g., OEM
       code  page)  to  test  passwords.   On EBCDIC systems, if both of these
       fail, EBCDIC encoding will be tested as a last resort.  (EBCDIC is  not
       tested on non-EBCDIC systems, because there are no known archivers that
       encrypt using EBCDIC encoding.)  ISO  character  encodings  other  than
       Latin-1 are not supported.

       To use unzip to extract all members of the archive into the
       current directory and subdirectories below it, creating any subdirecto-
       ries as necessary:

           unzip letters

       To extract all members of into the current directory only:

           unzip -j letters

       To test, printing only a summary message indicating whether
       the archive is OK or not:

           unzip -tq letters

       To test all zipfiles in the current directory, printing only  the  sum-

           unzip -tq \*.zip

       (The  backslash  before  the  asterisk  is  only  required if the shell
       expands wildcards, as in Unix;  double  quotes  could  have  been  used
       instead, as in the source examples below.)  To extract to standard out-
       put all members of whose names end in .tex, auto-converting
       to the local end-of-line convention and piping the output into more(1):

           unzip -ca letters \*.tex | more

       To extract the binary file paper1.dvi to standard output and pipe it to
       a printing program:

           unzip -p articles paper1.dvi | dvips

       To  extract  all  FORTRAN  and C source files--*.f, *.c, *.h, and Make-
       file--into the /tmp directory:

           unzip "*.[fch]" Makefile -d /tmp

       (the double quotes are necessary only in Unix and only if  globbing  is
       turned  on).   To extract all FORTRAN and C source files, regardless of
       case (e.g., both *.c and *.C, and any makefile, Makefile,  MAKEFILE  or

           unzip -C "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp

       To extract any such files but convert any uppercase MS-DOS or VMS names
       to lowercase and convert the line-endings of all of the  files  to  the
       local  standard  (without  respect  to  any  files that might be marked

           unzip -aaCL "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp

       To extract only newer versions of the  files  already  in  the  current
       directory,  without  querying  (NOTE:   be  careful of unzipping in one
       timezone a zipfile created in another--ZIP archives  other  than  those
       created  by  Zip  2.1  or  later contain no timezone information, and a
       ``newer`` file from an eastern timezone may, in fact, be older):

           unzip -fo sources

       To extract newer versions of the files already in the current directory
       and  to  create  any  files  not already there (same caveat as previous

           unzip -uo sources

       To display a diagnostic screen showing which unzip and zipinfo  options
       are  stored  in  environment  variables, whether decryption support was
       compiled in, the compiler with which unzip was compiled, etc.:

           unzip -v

       In the last five examples, assume that UNZIP or UNZIP_OPTS  is  set  to
       -q.  To do a singly quiet listing:

           unzip -l

       To do a doubly quiet listing:

           unzip -ql

       (Note  that the ``.zip`` is generally not necessary.)  To do a standard

           unzip --ql
           unzip -l-q
           unzip -l--q
       (Extra minuses in options don`t hurt.)

       The current maintainer, being a lazy sort,  finds  it  very  useful  to
       define a pair of aliases:  tt for ``unzip -tq`` and ii for ``unzip -Z``
       (or ``zipinfo``).  One may then simply type ``tt zipfile`` to  test  an
       archive,  something  that  is worth making a habit of doing.  With luck
       unzip will report ``No errors  detected      in  compressed  data  of  zip-,`` after which one may breathe a sigh of relief.

       The  maintainer also finds it useful to set the UNZIP environment vari-
       able to ``-aL`` and is tempted to add  ``-C``  as  well.   His  ZIPINFO
       variable is set to ``-z``.

       The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by
       PKWARE and takes on the following values, except under VMS:

              0      normal; no errors or warnings detected.

              1      one or more warning errors were encountered, but process-
                     ing  completed  successfully  anyway.  This includes zip-
                     files where one or more files was skipped due  to  unsup-
                     ported  compression  method or encryption with an unknown

              2      a generic error in the zipfile format was detected.  Pro-
                     cessing may have completed successfully anyway; some bro-
                     ken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple work-

              3      a  severe error in the zipfile format was detected.  Pro-
                     cessing probably failed immediately.

              4      unzip was unable to  allocate  memory  for  one  or  more
                     buffers during program initialization.

              5      unzip was unable to allocate memory or unable to obtain a
                     tty to read the decryption password(s).

              6      unzip was unable to allocate memory during  decompression
                     to disk.

              7      unzip  was  unable  to  allocate  memory during in-memory

              8      [currently not used]

              9      the specified zipfiles were not found.

              10     invalid options were specified on the command line.

              11     no matching files were found.

              50     the disk is (or was) full during extraction.

              51     the end of the ZIP archive was encountered prematurely.

              80     the user aborted unzip  prematurely  with  control-C  (or

              81     testing  or extraction of one or more files failed due to
                     unsupported   compression    methods    or    unsupported

              82     no  files  were  found due to bad decryption password(s).
                     (If even one file is successfully processed, however, the
                     exit status is 1.)

       VMS  interprets  standard Unix (or PC) return values as other, scarier-
       looking things, so unzip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes.
       The  current  mapping  is  as  follows:    1 (success) for normal exit,
       0x7fff0001   for   warning   errors,   and   (0x7fff000?   +    16*nor-
       mal_unzip_exit_status) for all other errors, where the `?` is 2 (error)
       for unzip values 2, 9-11 and 80-82, and 4 (fatal error) for the remain-
       ing  ones (3-8, 50, 51).  In addition, there is a compilation option to
       expand upon this behavior:  defining RETURN_CODES results in  a  human-
       readable explanation of what the error status means.

       Multi-part  archives  are not yet supported, except in conjunction with
       zip.  (All parts must be concatenated together in order, and then ``zip
       -F``  must be performed on the concatenated archive in order to ``fix``
       it.)  This will definitely be corrected in the next major release.

       Archives read from standard input are not yet  supported,  except  with
       funzip  (and  then  only  the  first  member  of  the  archive  can  be

       Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (e.g., passwords with  accented
       European  characters)  may  not be portable across systems and/or other
       archivers.  See the discussion in DECRYPTION above.

       unzip`s -M (``more``) option tries to take into account automatic wrap-
       ping  of  long  lines. However, the code may fail to detect the correct
       wrapping  locations.  First,  TAB  characters  (and   similar   control
       sequences)  are  not  taken  into account, they are handled as ordinary
       printable characters.  Second, depending on  the  actual  system  /  OS
       port,  unzip may not detect the true screen geometry but rather rely on
       "commonly used" default dimensions.  The correct handling of tabs would
       require the implementation of a query for the actual tabulator setup on
       the output console.

       Dates, times and permissions of stored  directories  are  not  restored
       except  under  Unix.  (On Windows NT and successors, timestamps are now

       [MS-DOS] When extracting or testing files from an archive on  a  defec-
       tive  floppy  diskette,  if  the  ``Fail``  option is chosen from DOS`s
       ``Abort, Retry, Fail?`` message, older versions of unzip may  hang  the
       system, requiring a reboot.  This problem appears to be fixed, but con-
       trol-C (or control-Break) can still be used to terminate unzip.

       Under DEC Ultrix, unzip would sometimes fail on long zipfiles (bad CRC,
       not always reproducible).  This was apparently due either to a hardware
       bug (cache memory) or an operating system  bug  (improper  handling  of
       page  faults?).   Since  Ultrix  has been abandoned in favor of Digital
       Unix (OSF/1), this may not be an issue anymore.

       [Unix] Unix special files such as FIFO  buffers  (named  pipes),  block
       devices and character devices are not restored even if they are somehow
       represented in the zipfile, nor are hard-linked files relinked.   Basi-
       cally the only file types restored by unzip are regular files, directo-
       ries and symbolic (soft) links.

       [OS/2] Extended attributes for existing directories are only updated if
       the  -o  (``overwrite  all``) option is given.  This is a limitation of
       the operating system; because directories only  have  a  creation  time
       associated  with them, unzip has no way to determine whether the stored
       attributes are newer or older than those on disk.  In practice this may
       mean  a  two-pass  approach is required:  first unpack the archive nor-
       mally (with or without freshening/updating existing files), then  over-
       write just the directory entries (e.g., ``unzip -o foo */``).

       [VMS]  When  extracting to another directory, only the [.foo] syntax is
       accepted for the -d option; the simple  Unix  foo  syntax  is  silently
       ignored (as is the less common VMS foo.dir syntax).

       [VMS]  When the file being extracted already exists, unzip`s query only
       allows skipping, overwriting or renaming; there should additionally  be
       a  choice for creating a new version of the file.  In fact, the ``over-
       write`` choice does create a new version; the old version is not      over-
       written or deleted.

       funzip(1L),   zip(1L),  zipcloak(1L),  zipgrep(1L),  zipinfo(1L),  zip-
       note(1L), zipsplit(1L)

       The Info-ZIP home page is currently at

       The primary Info-ZIP authors (current semi-active members of  the  Zip-
       Bugs  workgroup)  are:   Onno  van  der Linden (Zip); Christian Spieler
       (UnZip maintenance coordination, VMS, MS-DOS, Win32, shared code,  gen-
       eral  Zip  and UnZip integration and optimization); Mike White (Windows
       GUI, Windows DLLs); Kai Uwe Rommel (OS/2); Paul Kienitz (Amiga, Win32);
       Chris  Herborth  (BeOS, QNX, Atari); Jonathan Hudson (SMS/QDOS); Sergio
       Monesi (Acorn RISC OS); Harald Denker (Atari, MVS); John Bush (Solaris,
       Amiga);  Hunter  Goatley  (VMS);  Steve Salisbury (Win32); Steve Miller
       (Windows CE GUI), Johnny Lee (MS-DOS, Win32); and  Dave  Smith  (Tandem

       The  following  people  were former members of the Info-ZIP development
       group and provided major contributions to  key  parts  of  the  current
       code: Greg ``Cave Newt`` Roelofs (UnZip, unshrink decompression); Jean-
       loup Gailly (deflate compression); Mark Adler  (inflate  decompression,

       The  author  of the original unzip code upon which Info-ZIP`s was based
       is Samuel H. Smith; Carl Mascott did the first Unix port; and David  P.
       Kirschbaum  organized  and  led  Info-ZIP  in its early days with Keith
       Petersen hosting the original mailing list at WSMR-SimTel20.  The  full
       list  of  contributors  to UnZip has grown quite large; please refer to
       the CONTRIBS file in the UnZip source  distribution  for  a  relatively
       complete version.

       v1.2   15 Mar 89   Samuel H. Smith
       v2.0    9 Sep 89   Samuel H. Smith
       v2.x   fall 1989   many Usenet contributors
       v3.0    1 May 90   Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v3.1   15 Aug 90   Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v4.0    1 Dec 90   Info-ZIP (GRR, maintainer)
       v4.1   12 May 91   Info-ZIP
       v4.2   20 Mar 92   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.0   21 Aug 92   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.01  15 Jan 93   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.1    7 Feb 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.11   2 Aug 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.12  28 Aug 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.2   30 Apr 96   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.3   22 Apr 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.31  31 May 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.32   3 Nov 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.4   28 Nov 98   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.41  16 Apr 00   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.42  14 Jan 01   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.5   17 Feb 02   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.51  22 May 04   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)

Info-ZIP                      22 May 2004 (v5.51)                    UNZIP(1L)

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