Perpetual PC's

Web Site Design.       Networks.

Commands and references ( GNU / linux kernel 2.4.18-3 and 2.4.18-14 )   
Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds

The commands with their most common usage are in brackets like this: [ command ].
Don't type the brackets, just what is inside of them.

Back to the index page

TAIL(1)                          User Commands                         TAIL(1)

       tail - output the last part of files

       tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...

       Print  the  last  10  lines of each FILE to standard output.  With more
       than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file  name.   With
       no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

       Mandatory  arguments  to  long  options are mandatory for short options

              keep trying to open a file even if it is inaccessible when  tail
              starts  or  if it becomes inaccessible later -- useful only with

       -c, --bytes=N
              output the last N bytes

       -f, --follow[={name|descriptor}]
              output appended data as the file grows; -f, --follow, and --fol-
              low=descriptor are equivalent

       -F     same as --follow=name --retry

       -n, --lines=N
              output the last N lines, instead of the last 10

              with  --follow=name,  reopen  a  FILE which has not changed size
              after N (default 5) iterations to see if it has been unlinked or
              renamed (this is the usual case of rotated log files)

              with -f, terminate after process ID, PID dies

       -q, --quiet, --silent
              never output headers giving file names

       -s, --sleep-interval=S
              with -f, sleep for approximately S seconds (default 1.0) between

       -v, --verbose
              always output headers giving file names

       --help display this help and exit

              output version information and exit

       If the first character of N (the number of bytes or lines)  is  a  `+`,
       print  beginning  with the Nth item from the start of each file, other-
       wise, print the last N items in the file.  N may have a multiplier suf-
       fix: b 512, k 1024, m 1024*1024.

       With  --follow  (-f),  tail  defaults to following the file descriptor,
       which means that even if a tail`ed file is renamed, tail will  continue
       to  track  its  end.   This  default behavior is not desirable when you
       really want to track the actual name of the file, not the file descrip-
       tor (e.g., log rotation).  Use --follow=name in that case.  That causes
       tail to track the named file by reopening it periodically to see if  it
       has been removed and recreated by some other program.

       Written  by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, Ian Lance Taylor, and Jim Mey-

       Report bugs to (

       Copyright .© 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
       This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is
       NO  warranty;  not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR

       The full documentation for tail is maintained as a Texinfo manual.   If
       the  info  and  tail  programs are properly installed at your site, the

              info coreutils tail

       should give you access to the complete manual.

tail (coreutils) 5.2.1           October 2004                          TAIL(1)

Perpetual PC's home page

Perpetual PC's link page