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Commands and references ( GNU / linux kernel 2.4.18-3 and 2.4.18-14 )   
Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds

The commands with their most common usage are in brackets like this: [ command ].
Don't type the brackets, just what is inside of them.

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display last line first of file called filename
[ tac filename ]

display( concatenate ) file called filename
[ cat filename ]

display information about system version
[ cat /proc/version ]

Here is the manual page: (commands may not have brackets)
CAT(1) User Commands CAT(1) NAME cat - concatenate files and print on the standard output SYNOPSIS cat [OPTION] [FILE]... DESCRIPTION Concatenate FILE(s), or standard input, to standard output. -A, --show-all equivalent to -vET -b, --number-nonblank number nonblank output lines -e equivalent to -vE -E, --show-ends display $ at end of each line -n, --number number all output lines -s, --squeeze-blank never more than one single blank line -t equivalent to -vT -T, --show-tabs display TAB characters as ^I -u (ignored) -v, --show-nonprinting use ^ and M- notation, except for LFD and TAB --help display this help and exit --version output version information and exit With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input. AUTHOR Written by Torbjorn Granlund and Richard M. Stallman. REPORTING BUGS Report bugs to <>. COPYRIGHT Copyright © 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc. This is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. SEE ALSO The full documentation for cat is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and cat programs are properly installed at your site, the com- mand info coreutils cat should give you access to the complete manual. cat (coreutils) 5.2.1 October 2004 CAT(1)

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