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SH(1) BSD General Commands Manual SH(1) NAME sh - command interpreter (shell) SYNOPSIS sh [-/+aCefnuvxIimqsVEbc] [-o longname] [target ...] DESCRIPTION Sh is the standard command interpreter for the system. The current ver- sion of sh is in the process of being changed to conform with the POSIX 1003.2 and 1003.2a specifications for the shell. This version has many features which make it appear similar in some respects to the Korn shell, but it is not a Korn shell clone (see ksh(1)). Only features designated by POSIX, plus a few Berkeley extensions, are being incorporated into this shell. We expect POSIX conformance by the time 4.4 BSD is released. This man page is not intended to be a tutorial or a complete specifica- tion of the shell. Overview The shell is a command that reads lines from either a file or the termi- nal, interprets them, and generally executes other commands. It is the program that is running when a user logs into the system (although a user can select a different shell with the chsh(1) command). The shell imple- ments a language that has flow control constructs, a macro facility that provides a variety of features in addition to data storage. It incorpo- rates many features to aid interactive use and has the advantage that the interpretative language is common to both interactive and non-interactive use (shell scripts). That is, commands can be typed directly to the run- ning shell or can be put into a file and the file can be executed directly by the shell. Invocation If no args are present and if the standard input of the shell is con- nected to a terminal (or if the -i flag is set), and the -c option is not present, the shell is considered an interactive shell. An interactive shell generally prompts before each command and handles programming and command errors differently (as described below). When first starting, the shell inspects argument 0, and if it begins with a dash `-`, the shell is also considered a login shell. This is normally done automatically by the system when the user first logs in. A login shell first reads com- mands from the files /etc/profile and .profile if they exist. If the environment variable ENV is set on entry to a shell, or is set in the .profile of a login shell, the shell next reads commands from the file named in ENV. Therefore, a user should place commands that are to be executed only at login time in the .profile file, and commands that are executed for every shell inside the ENV file. To set the ENV variable to some file, place the following line in your .profile of your home direc- tory ENV=$HOME/.shinit; export ENV substituting for `œ.shinit` any filename you wish. Since the ENV file is read for every invocation of the shell, including shell scripts and non- interactive shells, the following paradigm is useful for restricting com- mands in the ENV file to interactive invocations. Place commands within the `œcase` and `œesac` below (these commands are described later): case $- in *i*) # commands for interactive use only ... esac If command line arguments besides the options have been specified, then the shell treats the first argument as the name of a file from which to read commands (a shell script), and the remaining arguments are set as the positional parameters of the shell ($1, $2, etc). Otherwise, the shell reads commands from its standard input. Argument List Processing All of the single letter options have a corresponding name that can be used as an argument to the -o option. The set -o name is provided next to the single letter option in the description below. Specifying a dash `œ-` turns the option on, while using a plus `œ+` disables the option. The following options can be set from the command line or with the set(1) builtin (described later). -a allexport Export all variables assigned to. (UNIMPLEMENTED for 4.4alpha) -c Read commands from the command line. No commands will be read from the standard input. -C noclobber Don`t overwrite existing files with `œ)`. (UNIM- PLEMENTED for 4.4alpha) -e errexit If not interactive, exit immediately if any untested command fails. The exit status of a com- mand is considered to be explicitly tested if the command is used to control an if, elif, while, or until; or if the command is the left hand operand of an `œ&&` or `œ||` operator. -f noglob Disable pathname expansion. -n noexec If not interactive, read commands but do not exe- cute them. This is useful for checking the syntax of shell scripts. -u nounset Write a message to standard error when attempting to expand a variable that is not set, and if the shell is not interactive, exit immediately. (UNIMPLEMENTED for 4.4alpha) -v verbose The shell writes its input to standard error as it is read. Useful for debugging. -x xtrace Write each command to standard error (preceded by a `+ `) before it is executed. Useful for debug- ging. -q quietprofile If the -v or -x options have been set, do not apply them when reading initialization files, these being /etc/profile, .profile, and the file specified by the ENV environment variable. -I ignoreeof Ignore EOF`s from input when interactive. -i interactive Force the shell to behave interactively. -m monitor Turn on job control (set automatically when inter- active). -s stdin Read commands from standard input (set automati- cally if no file arguments are present). This option has no effect when set after the shell has already started running (i.e. with set(1)). -V vi Enable the built-in vi(1) command line editor (disables -E if it has been set). -E emacs Enable the built-in emacs(1) command line editor (disables -V if it has been set). -b notify Enable asynchronous notification of background job completion. (UNIMPLEMENTED for 4.4alpha) Lexical Structure The shell reads input in terms of lines from a file and breaks it up into words at whitespace (blanks and tabs), and at certain sequences of char- acters that are special to the shell called `œoperators`. There are two types of operators: control operators and redirection operators (their meaning is discussed later). Following is a list of operators: Control operators: & && (); ;; | || (newline) Redirection operator: ( ) )| (( )) (& )& ((- () Quoting Quoting is used to remove the special meaning of certain characters or words to the shell, such as operators, whitespace, or keywords. There are three types of quoting: matched single quotes, matched double quotes, and backslash. Backslash A backslash preserves the literal meaning of the following character, with the exception of .Œ©newline.Œª. A backslash preceding a .Œ©newline.Œª is treated as a line continuation. Single Quotes Enclosing characters in single quotes preserves the literal meaning of all the characters (except single quotes, making it impossible to put single-quotes in a single-quoted string). Double Quotes Enclosing characters within double quotes preserves the literal meaning of all characters except dollarsign ($), backquote (`), and backslash (\). The backslash inside double quotes is historically weird, and serves to quote only the following characters: $ ` " \ (newline). Otherwise it remains literal. Reserved Words Reserved words are words that have special meaning to the shell and are recognized at the beginning of a line and after a control operator. The following are reserved words: ! elif fi while case else for then { } do done until if esac Their meaning is discussed later. Aliases An alias is a name and corresponding value set using the alias(1) builtin command. Whenever a reserved word may occur (see above), and after checking for reserved words, the shell checks the word to see if it matches an alias. If it does, it replaces it in the input stream with its value. For example, if there is an alias called `œlf` with the value `œls -F`, then the input: lf foobar (return) would become ls -F foobar (return) Aliases provide a convenient way for naive users to create shorthands for commands without having to learn how to create functions with arguments. They can also be used to create lexically obscure code. This use is dis- couraged. Commands The shell interprets the words it reads according to a language, the specification of which is outside the scope of this man page (refer to the BNF in the POSIX 1003.2 document). Essentially though, a line is read and if the first word of the line (or after a control operator) is not a reserved word, then the shell has recognized a simple command. Otherwise, a complex command or some other special construct may have been recognized. Simple Commands If a simple command has been recognized, the shell performs the following actions: 1. Leading words of the form `œname=value` are stripped off and assigned to the environment of the simple command. Redirec- tion operators and their arguments (as described below) are stripped off and saved for processing. 2. The remaining words are expanded as described in the section called `œExpansions`, and the first remaining word is consid- ered the command name and the command is located. The remain- ing words are considered the arguments of the command. If no command name resulted, then the `œname=value` variable assign- ments recognized in item 1 affect the current shell. 3. Redirections are performed as described in the next section. Redirections Redirections are used to change where a command reads its input or sends its output. In general, redirections open, close, or duplicate an exist- ing reference to a file. The overall format used for redirection is: [n] redir-op file where redir-op is one of the redirection operators mentioned previously. Following is a list of the possible redirections. The [n] is an optional number, as in `3` (not `[3]`, that refers to a file descriptor. [n]) file Redirect standard output (or n) to file. [n])| file Same, but override the -C option. [n])) file Append standard output (or n) to file. [n]( file Redirect standard input (or n) from file. [n1](&n2 Duplicate standard input (or n1) from file descriptor n2. [n](&- Close standard input (or n). [n1])&n2 Duplicate standard output (or n1) from n2. [n])&- Close standard output (or n). [n]() file Open file for reading and writing on standard input (or n). The following redirection is often called a `œhere-document`. [n](( delimiter here-doc-text... delimiter All the text on successive lines up to the delimiter is saved away and made available to the command on standard input, or file descriptor n if it is specified. If the delimiter as specified on the initial line is quoted, then the here-doc-text is treated literally, otherwise the text is subjected to parameter expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic expansion (as described in the section on `œExpansions`). If the operator is `œ((-` instead of `œ((`, then leading tabs in the here-doc-text are stripped. Search and Execution There are three types of commands: shell functions, builtin commands, and normal programs -- and the command is searched for (by name) in that order. They each are executed in a different way. When a shell function is executed, all of the shell positional parameters (except $0, which remains unchanged) are set to the arguments of the shell function. The variables which are explicitly placed in the environ- ment of the command (by placing assignments to them before the function name) are made local to the function and are set to the values given. Then the command given in the function definition is executed. The posi- tional parameters are restored to their original values when the command completes. This all occurs within the current shell. Shell builtins are executed internally to the shell, without spawning a new process. Otherwise, if the command name doesn`t match a function or builtin, the command is searched for as a normal program in the filesystem (as described in the next section). When a normal program is executed, the shell runs the program, passing the arguments and the environment to the program. If the program is not a normal executable file (i.e., if it does not begin with the "magic number" whose ASCII representation is "#!", so execve(2) returns ENOEXEC then) the shell will interpret the program in a subshell. The child shell will reinitialize itself in this case, so that the effect will be as if a new shell had been invoked to handle the ad- hoc shell script, except that the location of hashed commands located in the parent shell will be remembered by the child. Note that previous versions of this document and the source code itself misleadingly and sporadically refer to a shell script without a magic number as a "shell procedure". Path Search When locating a command, the shell first looks to see if it has a shell function by that name. Then it looks for a builtin command by that name. If a builtin command is not found, one of two things happen: 1. Command names containing a slash are simply executed without per- forming any searches. 2. The shell searches each entry in PATH in turn for the command. The value of the PATH variable should be a series of entries separated by colons. Each entry consists of a directory name. The current directory may be indicated implicitly by an empty directory name, or explicitly by a single period. Command Exit Status Each command has an exit status that can influence the behavior of other shell commands. The paradigm is that a command exits with zero for nor- mal or success, and non-zero for failure, error, or a false indication. The man page for each command should indicate the various exit codes and what they mean. Additionally, the builtin commands return exit codes, as does an executed shell function. Complex Commands Complex commands are combinations of simple commands with control opera- tors or reserved words, together creating a larger complex command. More generally, a command is one of the following: .· simple command .· pipeline .· list or compound-list .· compound command .· function definition Unless otherwise stated, the exit status of a command is that of the last simple command executed by the command. Pipelines A pipeline is a sequence of one or more commands separated by the control operator |. The standard output of all but the last command is connected to the standard input of the next command. The standard output of the last command is inherited from the shell, as usual. The format for a pipeline is: [!] command1 [| command2 ...] The standard output of command1 is connected to the standard input of command2. The standard input, standard output, or both of a command is considered to be assigned by the pipeline before any redirection speci- fied by redirection operators that are part of the command. If the pipeline is not in the background (discussed later), the shell waits for all commands to complete. If the reserved word ! does not precede the pipeline, the exit status is the exit status of the last command specified in the pipeline. Other- wise, the exit status is the logical NOT of the exit status of the last command. That is, if the last command returns zero, the exit status is 1; if the last command returns greater than zero, the exit status is zero. Because pipeline assignment of standard input or standard output or both takes place before redirection, it can be modified by redirection. For example: $ command1 2)&1 | command2 sends both the standard output and standard error of command1 to the standard input of command2. A ; or (newline) terminator causes the preceding AND-OR-list (described next) to be executed sequentially; a & causes asynchronous execution of the preceding AND-OR-list. Note that unlike some other shells, each process in the pipeline is a child of the invoking shell (unless it is a shell builtin, in which case it executes in the current shell -- but any effect it has on the environ- ment is wiped). Background Commands -- & If a command is terminated by the control operator ampersand (&), the shell executes the command asynchronously -- that is, the shell does not wait for the command to finish before executing the next command. The format for running a command in background is: command1 & [command2 & ...] If the shell is not interactive, the standard input of an asynchronous command is set to /dev/null. Lists -- Generally Speaking A list is a sequence of zero or more commands separated by newlines, semicolons, or ampersands, and optionally terminated by one of these three characters. The commands in a list are executed in the order they are written. If command is followed by an ampersand, the shell starts the command and immediately proceed onto the next command; otherwise it waits for the command to terminate before proceeding to the next one. Short-Circuit List Operators `œ&&` and `œ||` are AND-OR list operators. `œ&&` executes the first com- mand, and then executes the second command iff the exit status of the first command is zero. `œ||` is similar, but executes the second command iff the exit status of the first command is nonzero. `œ&&` and `œ||` both have the same priority. Flow-Control Constructs -- if, while, for, case The syntax of the if command is if list then list [ elif list then list ] ... [ else list ] fi The syntax of the while command is while list do list done The two lists are executed repeatedly while the exit status of the first list is zero. The until command is similar, but has the word until in place of while, which causes it to repeat until the exit status of the first list is zero. The syntax of the for command is for variable in word... do list done The words are expanded, and then the list is executed repeatedly with the variable set to each word in turn. do and done may be replaced with `œ{` and `œ}`. The syntax of the break and continue command is break [ num ] continue [ num ] Break terminates the num innermost for or while loops. Continue contin- ues with the next iteration of the innermost loop. These are implemented as builtin commands. The syntax of the case command is case word in pattern) list ;; ... esac The pattern can actually be one or more patterns (see Shell Patterns described later), separated by `œ|` characters. Grouping Commands Together Commands may be grouped by writing either (list) or { list; } The first of these executes the commands in a subshell. Builtin commands grouped into a (list) will not affect the current shell. The second form does not fork another shell so is slightly more efficient. Grouping com- mands together this way allows you to redirect their output as though they were one program: { printf " hello " ; printf " world\n" ; } ) greeting Functions The syntax of a function definition is name () command A function definition is an executable statement; when executed it installs a function named name and returns an exit status of zero. The command is normally a list enclosed between `œ{` and `œ}`. Variables may be declared to be local to a function by using a local com- mand. This should appear as the first statement of a function, and the syntax is local [variable | -] ... Local is implemented as a builtin command. When a variable is made local, it inherits the initial value and exported and readonly flags from the variable with the same name in the surround- ing scope, if there is one. Otherwise, the variable is initially unset. The shell uses dynamic scoping, so that if you make the variable x local to function f, which then calls function g, references to the variable x made inside g will refer to the variable x declared inside f, not to the global variable named x. The only special parameter than can be made local is `œ-`. Making `œ-` local any shell options that are changed via the set command inside the function to be restored to their original values when the function returns. The syntax of the return command is return [exitstatus] It terminates the currently executing function. Return is implemented as a builtin command. Variables and Parameters The shell maintains a set of parameters. A parameter denoted by a name is called a variable. When starting up, the shell turns all the environ- ment variables into shell variables. New variables can be set using the form name=value Variables set by the user must have a name consisting solely of alphabet- ics, numerics, and underscores - the first of which must not be numeric. A parameter can also be denoted by a number or a special character as explained below. Positional Parameters A positional parameter is a parameter denoted by a number (n ) 0). The shell sets these initially to the values of its command line arguments that follow the name of the shell script. The set(1) builtin can also be used to set or reset them. Special Parameters A special parameter is a parameter denoted by one of the following spe- cial characters. The value of the parameter is listed next to its char- acter. * Expands to the positional parameters, starting from one. When the expansion occurs within a double-quoted string it expands to a single field with the value of each parameter separated by the first character of the IFS variable, or by a (space) if IFS is unset. @ Expands to the positional parameters, starting from one. When the expansion occurs within double-quotes, each posi- tional parameter expands as a separate argument. If there are no positional parameters, the expansion of @ generates zero arguments, even when @ is double-quoted. What this basically means, for example, is if $1 is `œabc` and $2 is `œdef ghi`, then "$@" expands to the two arguments: "abc" "def ghi" # Expands to the number of positional parameters. ? Expands to the exit status of the most recent pipeline. - (Hyphen.) Expands to the current option flags (the single-letter option names concatenated into a string) as specified on invocation, by the set builtin command, or implicitly by the shell. $ Expands to the process ID of the invoked shell. A subshell retains the same value of $ as its parent. ! Expands to the process ID of the most recent background com- mand executed from the current shell. For a pipeline, the process ID is that of the last command in the pipeline. 0 (Zero.) Expands to the name of the shell or shell script. Word Expansions This clause describes the various expansions that are performed on words. Not all expansions are performed on every word, as explained later. Tilde expansions, parameter expansions, command substitutions, arithmetic expansions, and quote removals that occur within a single word expand to a single field. It is only field splitting or pathname expansion that can create multiple fields from a single word. The single exception to this rule is the expansion of the special parameter @ within double- quotes, as was described above. The order of word expansion is: 1. Tilde Expansion, Parameter Expansion, Command Substitution, Arith- metic Expansion (these all occur at the same time). 2. Field Splitting is performed on fields generated by step (1) unless the IFS variable is null. 3. Pathname Expansion (unless set -f is in effect). 4. Quote Removal. The $ character is used to introduce parameter expansion, command substi- tution, or arithmetic evaluation. Tilde Expansion (substituting a user`s home directory) A word beginning with an unquoted tilde character (~) is subjected to tilde expansion. All the characters up to a slash (/) or the end of the word are treated as a username and are replaced with the user`s home directory. If the username is missing (as in ~/foobar), the tilde is replaced with the value of the HOME variable (the current user`s home directory). Parameter Expansion The format for parameter expansion is as follows: ${expression} where expression consists of all characters until the matching `œ}`. Any `œ}` escaped by a backslash or within a quoted string, and characters in embedded arithmetic expansions, command substitutions, and variable expansions, are not examined in determining the matching `œ}`. The simplest form for parameter expansion is: ${parameter} The value, if any, of parameter is substituted. The parameter name or symbol can be enclosed in braces, which are optional except for positional parameters with more than one digit or when parameter is followed by a character that could be interpreted as part of the name. If a parameter expansion occurs inside double-quotes: 1. Pathname expansion is not performed on the results of the expansion. 2. Field splitting is not performed on the results of the expansion, with the exception of @. In addition, a parameter expansion can be modified by using one of the following formats. ${parameter:-word} Use Default Values. If parameter is unset or null, the expansion of word is substituted; otherwise, the value of parameter is substituted. ${parameter:=word} Assign Default Values. If parameter is unset or null, the expansion of word is assigned to parame- ter. In all cases, the final value of parameter is substituted. Only variables, not positional param- eters or special parameters, can be assigned in this way. ${parameter:?[word]} Indicate Error if Null or Unset. If parameter is unset or null, the expansion of word (or a message indicating it is unset if word is omitted) is writ- ten to standard error and the shell exits with a nonzero exit status. Otherwise, the value of parameter is substituted. An interactive shell need not exit. ${parameter:+word} Use Alternative Value. If parameter is unset or null, null is substituted; otherwise, the expansion of word is substituted. In the parameter expansions shown previously, use of the colon in the format results in a test for a parameter that is unset or null; omission of the colon results in a test for a parameter that is only unset. ${#parameter} String Length. The length in characters of the value of parameter. The following four varieties of parameter expansion provide for substring processing. In each case, pattern matching notation (see Shell Pat- terns), rather than regular expression notation, is used to evaluate the patterns. If parameter is * or @, the result of the expansion is unspec- ified. Enclosing the full parameter expansion string in double-quotes does not cause the following four varieties of pattern characters to be quoted, whereas quoting characters within the braces has this effect. ${parameter%word} Remove Smallest Suffix Pattern. The word is expanded to produce a pattern. The parameter expansion then results in parameter, with the smallest portion of the suffix matched by the pat- tern deleted. ${parameter%%word} Remove Largest Suffix Pattern. The word is expanded to produce a pattern. The parameter expansion then results in parameter, with the largest portion of the suffix matched by the pat- tern deleted. ${parameter#word} Remove Smallest Prefix Pattern. The word is expanded to produce a pattern. The parameter expansion then results in parameter, with the smallest portion of the prefix matched by the pat- tern deleted. ${parameter##word} Remove Largest Prefix Pattern. The word is expanded to produce a pattern. The parameter expansion then results in parameter, with the largest portion of the prefix matched by the pat- tern deleted. Command Substitution Command substitution allows the output of a command to be substituted in place of the command name itself. Command substitution occurs when the command is enclosed as follows: $(command) or (`œbackquoted` version): `command` The shell expands the command substitution by executing command in a sub- shell environment and replacing the command substitution with the stan- dard output of the command, removing sequences of one or more (newline)s at the end of the substitution. (Embedded (newline)s before the end of the output are not removed; however, during field splitting, they may be translated into (space)s, depending on the value of IFS and quoting that is in effect.) Arithmetic Expansion Arithmetic expansion provides a mechanism for evaluating an arithmetic expression and substituting its value. The format for arithmetic expan- sion is as follows: $((expression)) The expression is treated as if it were in double-quotes, except that a double-quote inside the expression is not treated specially. The shell expands all tokens in the expression for parameter expansion, command substitution, and quote removal. Next, the shell treats this as an arithmetic expression and substitutes the value of the expression. White Space Splitting (Field Splitting) After parameter expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic expansion the shell scans the results of expansions and substitutions that did not occur in double-quotes for field splitting and multiple fields can result. The shell treats each character of the IFS as a delimiter and use the delimiters to split the results of parameter expansion and command sub- stitution into fields. Pathname Expansion (File Name Generation) Unless the -f flag is set, file name generation is performed after word splitting is complete. Each word is viewed as a series of patterns, sep- arated by slashes. The process of expansion replaces the word with the names of all existing files whose names can be formed by replacing each pattern with a string that matches the specified pattern. There are two restrictions on this: first, a pattern cannot match a string containing a slash, and second, a pattern cannot match a string starting with a period unless the first character of the pattern is a period. The next section describes the patterns used for both Pathname Expansion and the case(1) command. Shell Patterns A pattern consists of normal characters, which match themselves, and meta-characters. The meta-characters are `œ!`, `œ*`, `œ?`, and `œ[`. These characters lose their special meanings if they are quoted. When command or variable substitution is performed and the dollar sign or back quotes are not double quoted, the value of the variable or the output of the command is scanned for these characters and they are turned into meta- characters. An asterisk (`œ*`) matches any string of characters. A question mark matches any single character. A left bracket (`œ[`) introduces a character class. The end of the character class is indicated by a (`œ]`); if the `œ]` is missing then the `œ[` matches a `œ[` rather than introducing a char- acter class. A character class matches any of the characters between the square brackets. A range of characters may be specified using a minus sign. The character class may be complemented by making an exclamation point the first character of the character class. To include a `œ]` in a character class, make it the first character listed (after the `œ!`, if any). To include a minus sign, make it the first or last character listed Builtins This section lists the builtin commands which are builtin because they need to perform some operation that can`t be performed by a separate pro- cess. In addition to these, there are several other commands that may be builtin for efficiency (e.g. printf(1), echo(1), test(1), etc). : A null command that returns a 0 (true) exit value. . file The commands in the specified file are read and executed by the shell. alias [name[=string ...]] If name=string is specified, the shell defines the alias name with value string. If just name is specified, the value of the alias name is printed. With no arguments, the alias builtin prints the names and values of all defined aliases (see unalias). bg [job] ... Continue the specified jobs (or the current job if no jobs are given) in the background. command command arg... Execute the specified builtin command. (This is useful when you have a shell function with the same name as a builtin command.) cd [directory] Switch to the specified directory (default $HOME). If an entry for CDPATH appears in the environment of the cd command or the shell variable CDPATH is set and the directory name does not begin with a slash, then the directories listed in CDPATH will be searched for the specified directory. The format of CDPATH is the same as that of PATH. In an interactive shell, the cd command will print out the name of the directory that it actually switched to if this is different from the name that the user gave. These may be different either because the CDPATH mechanism was used or because a symbolic link was crossed. eval string... Concatenate all the arguments with spaces. Then re-parse and exe- cute the command. exec [command arg...] Unless command is omitted, the shell process is replaced with the specified program (which must be a real program, not a shell builtin or function). Any redirections on the exec command are marked as permanent, so that they are not undone when the exec command finishes. exit [exitstatus] Terminate the shell process. If exitstatus is given it is used as the exit status of the shell; otherwise the exit status of the preceding command is used. export name... export -p The specified names are exported so that they will appear in the environment of subsequent commands. The only way to un-export a variable is to unset it. The shell allows the value of a variable to be set at the same time it is exported by writing export name=value With no arguments the export command lists the names of all exported variables. With the -p option specified the output will be formatted suitably for non-interactive use. fg [job] Move the specified job or the current job to the foreground. getopts optstring var The POSIX getopts command, not to be confused with the Bell Labs -derived getopt(1). The first argument should be a series of letters, each of which may be optionally followed by a colon to indicate that the option requires an argument. The variable specified is set to the parsed option. The getopts command deprecates the older getopt(1) utility due to its handling of arguments containing whitespace. The getopts builtin may be used to obtain options and their argu- ments from a list of parameters. When invoked, getopts places the value of the next option from the option string in the list in the shell variable specified by var and it`s index in the shell vari- able OPTIND. When the shell is invoked, OPTIND is initialized to 1. For each option that requires an argument, the getopts builtin will place it in the shell variable OPTARG. If an option is not allowed for in the optstring, then OPTARG will be unset. optstring is a string of recognized option letters (see getopt(3)). If a letter is followed by a colon, the option is expected to have an argument which may or may not be separated from it by white space. If an option character is not found where expected, getopts will set the variable var to a `œ?`; getopts will then unset OPTARG and write output to standard error. By specify- ing a colon as the first character of optstring all errors will be ignored. A nonzero value is returned when the last option is reached. If there are no remaining arguments, getopts will set var to the spe- cial option, `œ--`, otherwise, it will set var to `œ?`. The following code fragment shows how one might process the argu- ments for a command that can take the options [a] and [b], and the option [c], which requires an argument. while getopts abc: f do case $f in a | b) flag=$f;; c) carg=$OPTARG;; \?) echo $USAGE; exit 1;; esac done shift `expr $OPTIND - 1` This code will accept any of the following as equivalent: cmd -acarg file file cmd -a -c arg file file cmd -carg -a file file cmd -a -carg -- file file hash -rv command... The shell maintains a hash table which remembers the locations of commands. With no arguments whatsoever, the hash command prints out the contents of this table. Entries which have not been looked at since the last cd command are marked with an asterisk; it is possible for these entries to be invalid. With arguments, the hash command removes the specified commands from the hash table (unless they are functions) and then locates them. With the -v option, hash prints the locations of the com- mands as it finds them. The -r option causes the hash command to delete all the entries in the hash table except for functions. jobs This command lists out all the background processes which are children of the current shell process. pwd Print the current directory. The builtin command may differ from the program of the same name because the builtin command remembers what the current directory is rather than recomputing it each time. This makes it faster. However, if the current directory is renamed, the builtin version of pwd will continue to print the old name for the directory. read [-p prompt] [-r] variable... The prompt is printed if the -p option is specified and the stan- dard input is a terminal. Then a line is read from the standard input. The trailing newline is deleted from the line and the line is split as described in the section on word splitting above, and the pieces are assigned to the variables in order. At least one variable must be specified. If there are more pieces than vari- ables, the remaining pieces (along with the characters in IFS that separated them) are assigned to the last variable. If there are more variables than pieces, the remaining variables are assigned the null string. The read builtin will indicate success unless EOF is encountered on input, in which case failure is returned. By default, unless the -r option is specified, the backslash `œ\` acts as an escape character, causing the following character to be treated literally. If a backslash is followed by a newline, the backslash and the newline will be deleted. readonly name... readonly -p The specified names are marked as read only, so that they cannot be subsequently modified or unset. The shell allows the value of a variable to be set at the same time it is marked read only by writing readonly name=value With no arguments the readonly command lists the names of all read only variables. With the -p option specified the output will be formatted suitably for non-interactive use. set [{ -options | +options | -- }] arg... The set command performs three different functions. With no arguments, it lists the values of all shell variables. If options are given, it sets the specified option flags, or clears them as described in the section called Argument List Processing. The third use of the set command is to set the values of the shell`s positional parameters to the specified args. To change the positional parameters without changing any options, use `œ--` as the first argument to set. If no args are present, the set command will clear all the positional parameters (equivalent to executing `œshift $#`.) setvar variable value Assigns value to variable. (In general it is better to write vari- able=value rather than using setvar. setvar is intended to be used in functions that assign values to variables whose names are passed as parameters.) shift [n] Shift the positional parameters n times. A shift sets the value of $1 to the value of $2, the value of $2 to the value of $3, and so on, decreasing the value of $# by one. If n is greater than the number of positional parameters, shift will issue an error mes- sage, and exit with return status 2. times Print the accumulated user and system times for the shell and for processes run from the shell. The return status is 0. trap action signal... Cause the shell to parse and execute action when any of the speci- fied signals are received. The signals are specified by signal number. If signal is 0, the action is executed when the shell exits. action may be null or `œ-`; the former causes the specified signal to be ignored and the latter causes the default action to be taken. When the shell forks off a subshell, it resets trapped (but not ignored) signals to the default action. The trap command has no effect on signals that were ignored on entry to the shell. type [name ...] Interpret each name as a command and print the resolution of the command search. Possible resolutions are: shell keyword, alias, shell builtin, command, tracked alias and not found. For aliases the alias expansion is printed; for commands and tracked aliases the complete pathname of the command is printed. ulimit [-H | -S] [-a | -tfdscmlpn [value]] Inquire about or set the hard or soft limits on processes or set new limits. The choice between hard limit (which no process is allowed to violate, and which may not be raised once it has been lowered) and soft limit (which causes processes to be signaled but not necessarily killed, and which may be raised) is made with these flags: -H set or inquire about hard limits -S set or inquire about soft limits. If neither -H nor -S is specified, the soft limit is displayed or both lim- its are set. If both are specified, the last one wins. The limit to be interrogated or set, then, is chosen by specifying any one of these flags: -a show all the current limits -t show or set the limit on CPU time (in seconds) -f show or set the limit on the largest file that can be created (in 512-byte blocks) -d show or set the limit on the data segment size of a process (in kilobytes) -s show or set the limit on the stack size of a process (in kilobytes) -c show or set the limit on the largest core dump size that can be produced (in 512-byte blocks) -m show or set the limit on the total physical memory that can be in use by a process (in kilobytes) -l show or set the limit on how much memory a process can lock with mlock(2) (in kilobytes) -p show or set the limit on the number of processes this user can have at one time -n show or set the limit on the number files a process can have open at once If none of these is specified, it is the limit on file size that is shown or set. If value is specified, the limit is set to that number; otherwise the current limit is displayed. Limits of an arbitrary process can be displayed or set using the sysctl(8) utility. umask [mask] Set the value of umask (see umask(2)) to the specified octal value. If the argument is omitted, the umask value is printed. unalias [-a] [name] If name is specified, the shell removes that alias. If -a is spec- ified, all aliases are removed. unset name... The specified variables and functions are unset and unexported. If a given name corresponds to both a variable and a function, both the variable and the function are unset. wait [job] Wait for the specified job to complete and return the exit status of the last process in the job. If the argument is omitted, wait for all jobs to complete and the return an exit status of zero. ENVIRONMENT HOME Set automaticly by login(1) from the user`s login directory in the password file (passwd(4)). This environment variable also functions as the default argument for the cd builtin. PATH The default search path for executables. See the above sec- tion Path Search. CDPATH The search path used with the cd builtin. MAIL The name of a mail file, that will be checked for the arrival of new mail. Overridden by MAILPATH. MAILCHECK The frequency in seconds that the shell checks for the arrival of mail in the files specified by the MAILPATH or the MAIL file. If set to 0, the check will occur at each prompt. MAILPATH A colon `œ:` separated list of file names, for the shell to check for incoming mail. This environment setting overrides the MAIL setting. There is a maximum of 10 mailboxes that can be monitored at once. PS1 The primary prompt string, which defaults to `œ$ `, unless you are the superuser, in which case it defaults to `œ# `. PS2 The secondary prompt string, which defaults to `œ) `. IFS Input Field Separators. This is normally set to (space) (tab) and (newline). See the White Space Splitting section for more details. TERM The default terminal setting for the shell. This is inherited by children of the shell, and is used in the history editing modes. HISTSIZE The number of lines in the history buffer for the shell. FILES $HOME/.profile /etc/profile SEE ALSO csh(1), getopt(1), ksh(1), login(1), test(1), getopt(3), passwd(4), profile(4), environ(5) sysctl(8) HISTORY A sh command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX. It was, however, unmain- tainable so we wrote this one. EXIT STATUS Errors that are detected by the shell, such as a syntax error, will cause the shell to exit with a non-zero exit status. If the shell is not an interactive shell, the execution of the shell file will be aborted. Oth- erwise the shell will return the exit status of the last command exe- cuted, or if the exit builtin is used with a numeric argument, it will return the argument. BUGS Setuid shell scripts should be avoided at all costs, as they are a sig- nificant security risk. BSD January 9, 1999 BSD

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